The utilization of advanced technology to modulate the central or peripheral nervous system in patients with neurological disorders has expanded significantly over the past three decades. Neuromodulation techniques provide a novel alternative to medical therapy for symptom management and restoration of neurological function. The ability to cope with disease progression and symptom fluctuation while avoiding the harmful side effects of drug therapy and chemical dependence has made neuromodulation an attractive therapeutic intervention in modern clinical neurology.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has revolutionized symptom management in patients with essential tremor, Parkinson’s disease, and primary dystonia. New DBS indications are being explored in stroke, multiple sclerosis, Tourette’s syndrome, major depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) provides a safer alternative to opioids in patients with chronic neuropathic pain secondary to failed back syndrome, multiple sclerosis, or thalamic pain syndrome.
Likewise, sacral neuromodulation (bladder stimulator) has shown efficacy in patients with neurogenic bladder and/ or bowel incontinence secondary to various neurological conditions.